国际贸易术语和于

国际贸易术语比较图表以及大术语

 

组别

一道特点

术语名称

交货地点

高风险易

运输

保险

运输办法

E组
起步术语

www.4166.am,卖家责任最小
卖家责任最特别

EXW(工厂交货)

卖家工厂

交货时

买方

买方

内陆交货

F组
主运费
未提交术语

借贷方订立运输合同
支付主运费
合同属于装运合同

FCA(货交承运人)

交承运人

交货时

买方

买方

各类运输

FAS(船边交货)

弄虚作假港船边

交货时

海运内河

FOB(船上交货)

作伪港船上

佯装港船舷

海运内河

C组
主运费
就交由术语

卖家订立运输合同
开发主运费

合同属于装运合同
风险分开和用划分点分离

CFR(成本加运费)

弄虚作假港船上

假装港船舷

卖方

买方

海运内河

CIF(成本运费保险费)

装港船上

作港船舷

卖方

海运内河

CPT(运费付至)

交承运人

交货时

买方

各类运输

CIP(运费保险费付至)

交承运人

交货时

卖方

各种运输

D组
落得术语

卖方将货物运输到目的地
顶住货物运输到该地的全风险与费用,
合同属于到达合同

DAF(边境交货)

边防指定地方

交货时

卖方

卖方

陆上运输

DES(目的港船上交货)

目标港船上

交货时

海运内河

DEQ(目标港码头交货)

目的港码头

交货时

海运内河

DDU(未缴税交货)

指定目标地

交货时

各样运输

DDP(完税交货)

指定目标地

交货时

各个运输

 

 

2000接通则与2010对接则的最重要分:

INCOTERMS
2010给二〇一一年8月1日自从正式执行,2010以及2000比较要变化来:

1.贸易术语的数额由原先的13种变为11栽。

2.删减INCOTERMS2000境遇六只D组贸易术语,即DDU
(Delivered Duty Unpaid)、DAF (Delivered At Frontier)、DES (Delivered Ex
Ship)、DEQ (Delivered Ex
Quay),只保留了INCOTERMS2000D组中的DDP(Delivered Duty Paid

3.新加有限栽D组贸易术语,即 DAT
(Delivered At Terminal )
与 DAP(Delivered At Place )

DAT和DAP(指定目标地及点名地点交货),取代了DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU而落实的。

所谓DAT和DAP术语,是“实质性交货”术语,在以货物运到目标地过程被干的届具有开支及高风险由卖方承担。

本条术语适用于任何运输办法,由此为适用于各样DAF,DES,DEQ以及DDU从前受运过的景。

 

  1. 11栽贸易术语的分类:

2000接入则碰着之13栽术语按术语缩写首许母分成四组,即E组(EXW),F组,C组以及D组。

这种分类反映了卖家对于买方的权责程度。FCA,或者适用国内贸易的EXW,利用交货的形成和在尽可能早的年华管风险易给买方从而与卖方最少的责任。相反地,D组术语,或者说“实质性交货”术语,利用交货的落成及在尽量晚的时把风险易给买方从而与卖方最多之事。

这种分类如故分外重点,尤其是当当事人对2010搭则被之饱受11栽贸易术语作出采用时。然则,2010交接则用登时11种术语分成了截然不同的片接近。

第一看似包括这多少个适用于外运输形式,包括多式运输的七栽术语。EXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAP和DDP术语这仿佛。这个术语可以用于没有海上运输的动静。

但是假若谨记,这一个术语可以用于船只作为运输的等同部分的意况,只要在卖方交货点,或者货物下及买方的地点,或者双方有,风险易。

亚好像,实际上包含了较传统的特适用于海运或内河运输的4栽术语。

旋即类术语条件下,卖方交货点和商品运至买方的地方均是港,所以“唯海运不可”就是当时类似术语标签。FAS,FOB,CFR,CIF属于本类术语。

 

  1. 境内与国际贸易术语

市术语在风俗上吃利用于声明货物跨越国界传递的国际销售合同。

然,世界上片地域的巨型交易公司,像东盟及北美洲单一市场的存在,使得原本实际是的疆界通关手续变得不再那么来含义。

就此,2010连接则的编纂委员会认识及这多少个术语对国内及国际销售合同且是适用的;所以,2010接则在局部地点作出肯定表明,唯有以适用的地点,才来权利坚守出口/进口所要的手续。

有限地方的迈入而国际商会确信在这些趋势直达发一个转移是及时的。

第一,一个精锐的凭据就是是实在很多交易者将通则普遍使用于纯粹的内贸合同。

其余一个缘由就是是在美国人们还愿意采纳联网则要非是联行政诉讼法典装运和交货条款下于国内贸易。

6.使用指南

诸一样栽2010连通则碰着之术语在该条款后面都爆发一个使用指南。

指南说了各类种术语的基本原理:何种意况应选拔软术语;风险转移点是什么;费用以买卖是哪些分配的。

这一个指南并无是术语正式规则之同等片段:它们是用来赞助以及导使用者准确实用地也特定交易采取恰当的术语。

 

二零一零年国际贸易术语说通则

 

1.点儿栽新的术语——DAT和DAP

 

通则已经拿13栽不同之术语减为11种植。DAT和DAP(指定目标地和点名地址交货),取代了DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU而实现的。所谓DAT和DAP术语,是“实质性交货”术语,在将货物运及目的地过程被关系到之兼具开支及风险由卖方承担。此术语适用于任何运输办法,因而呢适用于各个DAF,DES,DEQ以及DDU此前叫运了之状况。

 

2.11种贸易术语的分类

 

2000通则未遭的13栽术语按术语缩写首字母分成四组,即,E组(EXW),F组,C组以及D组。这种分类反映了卖家对于买方的义务程度。FCA,或者适用国内贸易的EXW,利用交货的成就与当尽可能早的日将风险易给买方从而给卖方最少之权责。相反地,D组术语,或者说“实质性交货”术语,利用交货的到位和在尽量晚的时间管风险易给买方从而与卖方最多之权责。这种分类依旧非凡重点,尤其是于当事人对2010过渡则受到的受11栽贸易术语作出抉择时。

 

可,2010连接则拿即时11种植术语分成了意不同之少类。

 

第一看似包括这一个适用于任何运输办法,包括多式运输的七种植术语。EXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAP和DDP术语这类。这么些术语可以用于没有海上运输的图景。但若谨记,那些术语可以用于船只作为运输的一样部分的情形,只要以卖方交货点,或者货物运至买方的地址,或者两者兼有,风险易。

 

亚像样,实际上包含了比传统的只有适用于海运或内河运输的4栽术语。这好像术语条件下,卖方交货点和商品下至买方的地址都是港口,所以“唯海运不可”就是这类似术语标签。FAS,FOB,CFR,CIF属于本类术语。

 

3.国内和国际贸易术语

 

贸易术语在传统上吃下于声明货物跨越国界传递的国际销售合同。可是,世界上部分地方的重型交易集团,像东盟以及亚洲纯净市场的有,使得本实际存在的分界合格手续变得不再那么来含义。由此,2010连贯则的编排委员会认识及那一个术语对国内和国际销售合同且是适用的;所以,2010对接则当有的地点作出肯定表明,只有当适用的地方,才有分文不取遵从出口/进口所用的步调。

 

少数上边的向上使国际商会确信在这方向直达犯一个转是及时的。首先,一个无敌的凭证就是是实际很多交易者将通则普遍应用于纯粹的内贸合同。另一个原因就是在美利坚合众国人们还愿选拔联网则要无是联合国际法典装运和交货条款使用于国内贸易。

 

4.使用指南

 

各国一样栽2010连片则中的术语在其条款后边都暴发一个使用指南。指南解释了各国种术语的基本原理:何种情状应接纳软术语;风险转移点是啊;费用在买卖是哪些分配的。这一个指南并无是术语正式规则的如出一辙部分:它们是故来帮与导使用者准确实用地为特定交易采取适宜的术语。

 

5.电子通讯

 

通则的初期版本就对需要之票子作出了规定,这多少个字可让电子数据交流音讯替代。然而本2010连片则致电子通讯模式完全同的效果,只要各方当事人及一致或者以接纳地是规矩。在2010的生命期里,那无异规定好新的电子程序的嬗变发展。

 

6.保险

 

2010衔接则是自全社团货物保险条款改以来的率先只版,这一个最新版本在所修改内容遭充裕考虑了那个保险同款的变更。2010接入则在干运与保险合同的A3/A4条目中位列了关于保险责任的始末,原本它们属于内容相比泛化而且爆发正在比泛化标题“其他白白”的A10/B10缓慢。在当时面,为了表明当事人的白,对A3/A4款款被干保险的内容作出修改。

 

7.关于安全之核准书及这种核准书要求的信

 

现今本着货物在转换过程被之平安关注度大高,由此要求检定货物不碰面出为除该自属性外的缘故只要造成对生命财产的吓唬。因而,在各类术语的A2/B2及A10/B10条目内容中带有了拿到要供帮衬得到安全核准的义诊,比如货物保管链。

 

8.码头装卸费

 

依“C”组术语,卖方要承担用货物运输至预定目的地:表面上是卖家自负运输支出,但其实是由买方负担,因为卖方早已拿及时一部分资费包含在前期的货色价格被。运输成本有时连商品在港湾内的装卸及活动费用,或者集装箱码头设施费用,而且承运人或者码头的运营方也恐怕朝着受商品之买方收取这多少个费用。譬如,在这个意况下,买方就如留意防止吗同一不良服务付出两不良消费,一不行包含在货物价格被提交卖方,一不善独立付给承运人或码头的运营方。2010对接则当相关术语的A6/B6条款遭对那种用的分红作出了详实规定,意在制止上述意况的来。

 

9.类别售货(string sales)

 

当货物的销售被,有同等种与一贯销售相对的销售办法,货物在沿销售链运转的过程被一再地给销售好几不行。在这种气象下,在密密麻麻销售当中的销售商并无以货物“装船”,因为她就由远在这同样销售串中的起源销售商装船。由此,序列销售的高中级销售商对该买方应承担的白不是用商品装船,而是“设法获取”已装船货物。着眼于贸易术语在这种销售中之选拔,2010通则的连带术语中同时规定了“设法获取已装船货物”和以商品装船的权利。

 

术语的使用表明

 

2000通则吃,依照镜像原则,A条款下反映的凡卖家的无偿,相应地,B条款下反映的是买方的白白。但是由有些短语的使用贯穿整个文件,2010连缀则打算以该正文中针对以下让列下的辞藻不再发解释,以以下声明为依照。

 

承运人:就2010接则而言,承运人是依靠签署运输合同的同样正在。

 

出口清关:依据各样规定办理出口手续,并支付各个税费。

 

交货:那一个概念在交易法律及惯例被起正在多复意思,然而2010联网则中之所以该来代表商品缺损的高风险由卖方转移至买方的触及。

 

电子数据:由同样栽要有限种植以上的和呼应纸质文书效用等同的电子信息组成的底同等多级消息。

 

‘包装’和‘存放’:这么些短语被用来不同的目的:

 

  1. 比如合同中保有的求的货色装进。

 

  1. 若商品入运输的包裹。

 

  1. 曾打包好之货转载进货柜抑或另运输工具。

 

 

老三独常因而海运贸易术语的相比(FOB、 CIF 、CFR) :

她的共同点是:1、都止适用于海运及内河航运,不适用于其他的运输办法。2、交货地方都是当装运港,即卖方是当装运港做到交货。尤其要顾CIF术语,是在装运港交货,而休是在目标港。3、风险易的限都同样,都是当装运港货通过船眩风险由叙方转给进口方。4、都是礼节性交货。 

她的不同点有次:1、双方于运及保证及之分工不同。FOB 术语中凡是前进口方负责运输与保证,CIF是出口方负责运输及保, CFR是语人顶运输,进口人当保证。2、货物的价格构成不同。FOB只是成本价格,CIF是“货物成本价+保险费+运费”价格, CFR是“货物成本价+运费”价格。

 

FOB
价格是离岸价,就是goods成本费用+从工厂及装运地的开销,当然还得加上报关商检等用。(就是若终于总资金时未用加海洋运输支出)
CIF价格便是当FOB的功底及添加保险费和运费。(保险insurance,运费freight)
CFR价格就是者CIF中的管支出并非加,你的客户自己办包就OK了。

 

FOB:经理为的本金+拖车(固定的)+码头费(文件费珠三角码头费分为ORC和THC)报关(要无苟商检?进出口权有没?)产品稳定的,问一下纵亮成本,算下来这费用*20%盖有部分飞的事物,查柜啊,压夜啊什么的(20%竟之开支,例如:查柜、拖车压夜、仓租柜租、调柜、改船期、改提单等等意外事件所生的费用.)。
CIF:那多少个是至岸价,这多少个价钱不佳把。FOB+海运费,海运费相比较难以把握,不同之触发价格不一致,不同的年月段价格再不等同(近洋一年四季差价在100比索以内,远洋这虽然是上千怡然自得资一个橱柜啊,可能再多),那个要拘留点,然后去询价,找一个老货代,给您一个大约的限,然后你*20如此不汇合亏。保险货值*0.003太多矣,这么些从未几单钱(注意要爱碎品*0.005足够了)。
CFR=CIF-保险

 

 

 

 

Allocations of Costs to Buyer/Seller according to Incoterms 2010

 

Incoterm 2010 Export customs declaration Carriage to port of export Unloading of truck in port of export Loading on vessel/airplane in port of export Carriage (Sea/Air) to port of import Insurance Unloading in port of import Loading on truck in port of import Carriage to place of destination Import customs clearance Import duties and taxes
EXW Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
CPT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer/Seller Buyer/Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
CFR Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer/Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
CIP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer/Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller

 

Allocations of risks to buyer/seller according to Incoterms 2010

The risk and the cost is not always the same for Incoterms. In many
cases, the risk and cost usually goes together but it is not always the
case.

Rules for sea and inland waterway transport

Incoterm 2010 Seller Carrier Port/Terminal Onboard Port/Terminal Buyer
FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer
CFR Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer

Rules for any modes of transport

Incoterm 2010 Seller Carrier Port Ship Port Terminal Named Place Buyer
EXW Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
CPT Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
CIP Seller Seller Insurance Insurance Insurance Insurance Insurance Buyer
DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer
DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller

 

Rules for any mode of transport

EXW – Ex Works (named place of delivery)

The seller makes the goods available at their premises, or at another
named place. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and
minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when
making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs
included.

EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their
final destination. Either the seller does not load the goods on
collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller
does load the goods, he does so at buyer’s risk and cost. If the parties
agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods
on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this
must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the
contract of sale.

There is no obligation for the seller to make a contract of carriage,
but there is also no obligation for the buyer to arrange one either –
the buyer may sell the goods on to their own customer for collection
from the original seller’s warehouse. However, in common practice the
buyer arranges the collection of the freight from the designated
location, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The
buyer is also responsible for completing all the export documentation,
although the seller does have an obligation to obtain information and
documents at the buyer’s request and cost.

These documentary requirements may result in two principal issues.
Firstly, the stipulation for the buyer to complete the export
declaration can be an issue in certain jurisdictions (not least the
European Union) where the customs regulations require the declarant to
be either an individual or corporation resident within the jurisdiction.
If the buyer is based outside of the customs jurisdiction they will be
unable to clear the goods for export, meaning that the goods may be
declared in the name of the seller by the buyer, even though the export
formalities are the buyer’s responsibility under the EXW term.[
](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incoterms#cite_note-12)

Secondly, most jurisdictions require companies to provide proof of
export for tax purposes. In an EXW shipment, the buyer is under no
obligation to provide such proof to the seller, or indeed to even export
the goods. In a customs jurisdiction such as the European Union, this
would leave the seller liable to a sales tax bill as if the goods were
sold to a domestic customer. It is therefore of utmost importance that
these matters are discussed with the buyer before the contract is
agreed. It may well be that another Incoterm, such as FCA seller’s
premises
, may be more suitable, since this puts the onus for declaring
the goods for export onto the seller, which provides for more control
over the export process.

FCA – Free Carrier (named place of delivery)

The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, at a named place
(possibly including the seller’s own premises). The goods can be
delivered to a carrier nominated by the buyer, or to another party
nominated by the buyer.

In many respects this Incoterm has replaced FOB in modern usage,
although the critical point at which the risk passes moves from loading
aboard the vessel to the named place. It should also be noted that the
chosen place of delivery affects the obligations of loading and
unloading the goods at that place.

If delivery occurs at the seller’s premises, or at any other location
that is under the seller’s control, the seller is responsible for
loading the goods on to the buyer’s carrier. However, if delivery occurs
at any other place, the seller is deemed to have delivered the goods
once their transport has arrived at the named place; the buyer is
responsible for both unloading the goods and loading them onto their own
carrier.

CPT – Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)

CPT replaces the C&F (cost and freight) and CFR terms for all shipping
modes outside of non-containerized seafreight.

The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named place of
destination. However, the goods are considered to be delivered when the
goods have been handed over to the first or main carrier, so that the
risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to that carrier at the
place of shipment in the country of Export.

The seller is responsible for origin costs including export clearance
and freight costs for carriage to the named place of destination (either
the final destination such as the buyer’s facilities or a port of
destination. This has to be agreed by seller and buyer, however).

If the buyer requires the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIP
should be considered instead.

CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)

This term is broadly similar to the above CPT term, with the exception
that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in
transit
CIP requires the seller to insure the goods for 110% of
the contract value
 under at least the minimum cover of the Institute
Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London Underwriters (which would be
Institute Cargo Clauses (C)), or any similar set of clauses. The policy
should be in the same currency as the contract, and should allow the
buyer, the seller, and anyone else with an insurable interest in the
goods to be able to make a claim.

CIP can be used for all modes of transport, whereas the
Incoterm CIF should only be used for non-containerized
sea-freight.’

DAT – Delivered At Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)

This Incoterm requires that the seller delivers the goods, unloaded, at
the named terminal. The seller covers all the costs of transport (export
fees, carriage, unloading from main carrier at destination port and
destination port charges) and assumes all risk until arrival at the
destination port or terminal.

The terminal can be a Port, Airport, or inland freight interchange, but
must be a facility with the capability to receive the shipment. If the
seller is not able to organise unloading, they should consider shipping
under DAP terms instead.

All charges after unloading (for example, Import duty, taxes, customs
and on-carriage) are to be borne by buyer. However, it is important to
note that any delay or demurrage charges at the terminal will generally
be for the seller’s account.

DAP – Delivered At Place (named place of destination)

Incoterms 2010 defines DAP as ‘Delivered at Place’ – the seller delivers
when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving
means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of
destination. Under DAP terms, the risk passes from seller to buyer from
the point of destination mentioned in the contract of delivery.

Once goods are ready for shipment, the necessary packing is carried out
by the seller at his own cost, so that the goods reach their final
destination safely. All necessary legal formalities in the exporting
country are completed by the seller at his own cost and risk to clear
the goods for export.

After arrival of the goods in the country of destination, the customs
clearance in the importing country needs to be completed by the buyer at
his own cost and risk, including all customs duties and taxes. However,
as with DAT terms any delay or demurrage charges are to be borne by the
seller.

Under DAP terms, all carriage expenses with any terminal expenses are
paid by seller up to the agreed destination point. The necessary
unloading cost at final destination has to be borne by buyer under DAP
terms. [
](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incoterms#cite_note-15)

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the
country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the
destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not
responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the
non-Incoterm “Free In Store (FIS)”. This term places the maximum
obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer. No risk
or responsibility is transferred to the buyer until delivery of the
goods at the named place of destination.[
](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incoterms#cite_note-16)

The most important consideration for DDP terms is that the seller is
responsible for clearing the goods through customs in the buyer’s
country, including both paying the duties and taxes, and obtaining the
necessary authorizations and registrations from the authorities in that
country. Unless the rules and regulations in the buyer’s country are
very well understood, DDP terms can be a very big risk both in terms of
delays and in unforeseen extra costs, and should be used with caution.

Rules for sea and inland waterway transport

To determine if a location qualifies for these four rules, please refer
to ‘United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations
(UN/LOCODE)’.[
](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incoterms#cite_note-17)

The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where
transportation is entirely conducted by water are as per the below. It
is important to note that these terms are generally not suitable for
shipments in shipping containers; the point at which risk and
responsibility for the goods passes is when the goods are loaded on
board the ship, and if the goods are sealed into a shipping container it
is impossible to verify the condition of the goods at this point.

Also of note is that the point at which risk passes under these terms
has shifted from previous editions of Incoterms, where the risk passed
at the ship’s rail.

FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)

The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer’s
vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to
bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that
moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export,
which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the
buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the
buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding
explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term
should be used only for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway
transport.

FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment)

See also: FOB (Shipping))

Under FOB terms the seller bears all costs and risks up to the point the
goods are loaded on board the vessel. The seller’s responsibility does
not end at that point unless the goods are “appropriated to the
contract” that is, they are “clearly set aside or otherwise identified
as the contract goods.” Therefore, FOB contract requires a seller to
deliver goods on board a vessel that is to be designated by the buyer in
a manner customary at the particular port. In this case, the seller must
also arrange for export clearance. On the other hand, the buyer pays
cost of marine freight transportation, bill of lading fees, insurance,
unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination.
Since Incoterms 1980 introduced the FCA incoterm, FOB should only be
used for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport.
However, FOB is commonly used incorrectly for all modes of transport
despite the contractual risks that this can introduce. In some common
law countries
 such
as the United States of
America
, FOB is
not only connected with the carriage of goods by sea but also used for
inland carriage aboard any “vessel, car or other vehicle.”[
](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incoterms#cite_note-19)

CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)

The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named port of
destination. Risk transfers to buyer when the goods have been loaded on
board the ship in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for
origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage
to named port. The shipper is not responsible for delivery to the final
destination from the port (generally the buyer’s facilities), or for
buying insurance. If the buyer does require the seller to obtain
insurance, the Incoterm CIF should be considered. CFR should only be
used for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport; for
all other modes of transport it should be replaced with CPT.

CIF – Cost, Insurance & Freight (named port of destination)

This term is broadly similar to the above CFR term, with the exception
that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in
transit to the named port of destination. CIF requires the seller to
insure the goods for 110% of their value under at least the minimum
cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London
Underwriters (which would be Institute Cargo Clauses (C)), or any
similar set of clauses. The policy should be in the same currency as the
contract. The seller must also turn over documents necessary, to obtain
the goods from the carrier or to assert claim against an insurer to the
buyer. The documents include (as a minimum) the invoice, the insurance
policy, and the bill of
lading
. These three
documents represent the cost, insurance, and freight of CIF. The
seller’s obligation ends when the documents are handed over to the
buyer. Then, the buyer has to pay at the agreed price. Another point to
consider is that CIF should only be used for non-containerized
seafreight; for all other modes of transport it should be replaced with
CIP.

 

 

Previous terms from Incoterms 2000 eliminated from Incoterms 2010

While these terms do not feature in the current version of Incoterms it
is possible that they may be seen in sales order contracts. Care must be
taken to ensure that both parties agree on their obligations in this
case.

DAF – Delivered at Frontier (named place of delivery)

This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road.
The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the
frontier. The buyer arranges for customs clearance and pays for
transportation from the frontier to his factory. The passing of risk
occurs at the frontier.

DES – Delivered Ex Ship

Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur
until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the
goods made available for unloading to the buyer. The seller pays the
same freight and insurance costs as he would under a CIF arrangement.
Unlike CFR and CIF terms, the seller has agreed to bear not just cost,
but also Risk and Title up to the arrival of the vessel at the named
port. Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. are for
the Buyer. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as
coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has
chartered their own vessel.

DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of delivery)

This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the
goods have been unloaded at the port of discharge.

DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination)

This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the
named place of destination in the contract of sale. A transaction in
international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe
delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation and
customs clearance expenses but not the duty. The seller bears the risks
and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location,
where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and taxes.